Estonia

National policy
National policy/strategy or official recommendations on HIV testing?Yes
National policy/strategy document
Who can administer HIV tests?
Restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?Yes
Which groups can legally do HIV testing?
  • Specialist clinic staff (doctor and/nurse) only
  • Any doctor/nurse (not necessarily in a specialist clinic)
  • NGO with clinical supervision
Further commentsOnly doctors (GPs and specialist doctors) and midwives can recommend HIV testing. HIV testing (the procedure) can be performed by nurses, midwives, doctors, laboratory specialists (medical personnel)
Free HIV testing
HIV testing free to all who want it?Yes for all
Further commentsFree for all (incl illegal immmigrants) in anonymous HIV testing sites. Free for those who have national health insurance (94% of the population)In prisons
Is free HIV testing available?Across whole country
Further comments
HIV testing restrictions
HIV testing access restricted for some groups/populations?No
Which groups are restricted
Further comments
Availability of testing in non-clinical settings
Is testing available in any of the following ways?
Postal HIV sampling legal?No
Home HIV testing legal?Yes
Community testing at NGOs legal?Yes
Community/outreach event testing legal?Yes
Othergay oriented bars, clubs and sauna
Rapid tests used by community based testing services/initiatives?Finger blood
Anonymity/Confidentiality of HIV testing
Anonymous testing available?Yes
If yes, please give detailsThere is a network of 13 anonymous testing sites across the country (testing for HIV, hepatitis B and C) as well as community based events and teting facilities being anonymous.
If not, why not, what sort of information is required and is there any promise of confidentiality?
Discrimination & equality
Legislation
Legislation protecting the rights of people with HIV?No
Further commentsA respondent writes 'We have no specific legislation for PLHIV. We have general legislation to protect everybody
Other key populations
Needle exchange available for people who inject drugs?Yes
Further commentsNeedle exchange is available everywhere where there is need (except in prisons). Good coverage, there is no limit on the number of syringes issues.

Availability of needle exchange is also confirmed by information available on https://www.hri.global/global-state-of-harm-reduction

Opiate substitution therapy available?Yes
Further comments

OST is also available in prisons 

Availability of OST is also confirmed by information available on https://www.hri.global/global-state-of-harm-reduction

Are PWID (people who inject drugs) excluded from HIV treatment while actively using drugs?No
Further comments
Legal to sell sex?Yes
Further comments

Selling and buying sex are not a crime but there are legal barriers to prostitution being a recognised occupation. - from http://spl.ids.ac.uk/sexworklaw

Legal to buy sex?Yes
Further comments

Selling and buying sex are not a crime but there are legal barriers to prostitution being a recognised occupation. - from http://spl.ids.ac.uk/sexworklaw

Access to HIV Treatment
Free access to HIV treatment?Yes, for some
Further commentsFor ARV treatment, an Estonian residence permit is required.It is currently unclear from the responses received how this is obtained if one is a migrant from outside the EU.  
Status and access to HIV treatment and care in your country
Access to HIV treatment restricted for certain populations with HIV?Yes
Which groups are restricted?
  • Migrants
If more than one of the above populations selected, please give more information
Status
Country statusEU
Mobility in Europe
Do the following groups/populations have legal access to HIV treatment? (i.e provided on the same basis as citizens of the country)
Legal treatment access: Other EU migrant nationalsYes but there are exceptions
If yes but exceptions, please describeMust have a residence permit in Estonia.
Legal treatment access: general non-EU migrantsYes but there are exceptions
If yes but exceptions, please describe

Must have a residence permit in Estonia.

Legal treatment access: Non-EU migrants with asylum/refugee statusDon't know
If yes but exceptions, please describe

Must have a residence permit in Estonia.

Legal treatment access: Non-EU migrants who are undocumentedNo
If yes but exceptions, please describe

Must have a residence permit in Estonia.

Further comments
About this data
Last minor revision12 July 2016
Last major revision19 December 2016
Published2 January 2017
Data sourcesAs well as responses from in-country individuals information was taken from the follwing sources:http://ecdc.europa.eu/en/healthtopics/aids/Pages/monitoring-dublin-declaration.aspx
Sex Work Laws
These included  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prostitution_by_country#Europe
The Global Network of Sex Work Projects www.nswp.org and country sources and http://sexualrightsdatabase.org/map/21/Adult%20sex%20work and http://spl.ids.ac.uk/sexworklaw
Drug use
Needle exchange information was taken from Harm Reduction International who have an interactive tool https://www.hri.global/global-state-of-harm-reduction
Criminal Law
http://criminalisation.gnpplus.net has useful info about the criminal law and is searchable by country as well as http://www.hivjustice.net/site/countries/
MSM
http://ilga.org/what-we-do/state-sponsored-homophobia-report/ (2016)
Data contacts

Responses were received from National Institute for Health Development (http://www.tai.ee/) and Estonian Network of PLWH (www.ehpv.ee)


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