Hungary

National policy
National policy/strategy or official recommendations on HIV testing?No
Who can administer HIV tests?
Restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?Yes
Which groups can legally do HIV testing?
  • Any doctor/nurse (not necessarily in a specialist clinic)
  • NGO with clinical supervision
  • NGO without clinical supervision
Further commentsAccording to one of our respondents 'The situation is very peculiar. If you offer testing services to substance users as a low-threshold harm reduction service, then no medical personnel need to be present. For other risk groups, such as MSM, a doctor must be present. At the same time, you are allowed to do testing and counselling if you have attended the relevant 3-day course (partly held by me) and have obtained the certificate. The situation is thus very unclear. I, for example, offer testing on my own in my living room and in the fitness facility where I go. Nobody cares.'
Free HIV testing
HIV testing free to all who want it?Yes for all
Further commentsOne of our respondents report 'HIV tests are free if you want it for your personal purpose and if you go to an STI clinic. These tests are anonymous if you ask specifically that you want anonymous testing - but you have to ask !. If you need a test for a work permit or for a visa, then you have to pay. Also, rapid tests are charged.If  NGO based the testing experience is free of charge and completely anonymous'.
Is free HIV testing available?Across whole country
Further commentsIn principle HIV testing is avaiable across the whole country, but it is rare and difficult in the countryside. The main reason is lack of trust about confidentiality, lack of resources and information.
HIV testing restrictions
HIV testing access restricted for some groups/populations?No
Which groups are restricted
Further comments
Availability of testing in non-clinical settings
Is testing available in any of the following ways?
Postal HIV sampling legal?No
Home HIV testing legal?No
Community testing at NGOs legal?Yes
Community/outreach event testing legal?Yes
OtherAn activist respondent notes 'we organise testing anywhere we can, Im my house, the fitness facilty I use, in bars - anyhwhere that will lets us !'
Rapid tests used by community based testing services/initiatives?
Anonymity/Confidentiality of HIV testing
Anonymous testing available?Yes
If yes, please give detailsNurses usually ask for the social security card, but you are not obliged to give it. The good thing is: You can get an anonymous test by law. The bad thing is: Many people, including health care providers, don
If not, why not, what sort of information is required and is there any promise of confidentiality?
Discrimination & equality
Legislation
Legislation protecting the rights of people with HIV?Yes
Further comments

Only available in Hungarian - and as not specific to HIV - embedded in many other documents.  

The issues are that the law is not observed, people have low legal literacy about their rights, and even when they are aware are fearful of coming forward to asset their rights.

Other key populations
Needle exchange available for people who inject drugs?Yes
Further comments

Yes, but to an alarmingly decreasing extent. Harm reduction programs are actively harassed and closed. 

Needle exchange rates are very low. The WHO recommendation for the rate of needle exchange is 200 per year. Hungary stands at 30

Opiate substitution therapy available?Yes
Further commentsVery difficult to access, often associated with criminalisation and overt or inferred forced deterrent programmes.
Are PWID (people who inject drugs) excluded from HIV treatment while actively using drugs?No
Further comments
Legal to sell sex?Yes
Further comments

For further information: http://sexualrightsdatabase.org/map/21/Adult%20sex%20work/361/Hungary

Legal to buy sex?Yes
Further commentsOne of our respondents notes 'Hungarian legal regulations are often quoted as the example for hypocrisy. While sex work is theoretically permitted, the regulations are so cumbersome and strict, and also so expensive to comply with, that most sex workers work illegally'.
it is further noted on http://spl.ids.ac.uk/sexworklaw that their are laws preventing women with HIV from selling sex or requiring them to disclose their staus to clients.
Access to HIV Treatment
Free access to HIV treatment?Don't know
Further comments
Status and access to HIV treatment and care in your country
Access to HIV treatment restricted for certain populations with HIV?Don't know
Which groups are restricted?
If more than one of the above populations selected, please give more information
Status
Country statusEU
Mobility in Europe
Do the following groups/populations have legal access to HIV treatment? (i.e provided on the same basis as citizens of the country)
Legal treatment access: Other EU migrant nationalsYes there is universal access
If yes but exceptions, please describeGeneral rules that apply to EU citizens in terms of accessing healthcare are also applicable to HIV.
Legal treatment access: general non-EU migrantsYes but there are exceptions
If yes but exceptions, please describe  The regulations are very unclear. Sometimes it depends on the benevolence of the doctors.
Legal treatment access: Non-EU migrants with asylum/refugee statusDon't know
If yes but exceptions, please describe

The entire migration issue in Hungary has become so complex and problematic, and there is so much hysteria around it that it is impossible to understand what is happening.

Legal treatment access: Non-EU migrants who are undocumentedDon't know
If yes but exceptions, please describeThese people are either expelled from the country immediately, or they choose not to stay here in the main.
Further comments
About this data
Last minor revision12 July 2016
Last major revision5 January 2017
Published19 January 2017
Data sourcesAs well as responses from in-country individuals and organisations information and data was taken from the following sources: http://ecdc.europa.eu/en/healthtopics/aids/Pages/monitoring-dublin-declaration.aspx
Sex Work Laws
These included  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prostitution_by_country#Europe
The Global Network of Sex Work Projects www.nswp.org and country sources and http://sexualrightsdatabase.org/map/21/Adult%20sex%20work and http://spl.ids.ac.uk/sexworklaw
Drug use
Needle exchange information was taken from Harm Reduction International who have an interactive tool https://www.hri.global/global-state-of-harm-reduction
Criminal Law
http://criminalisation.gnpplus.net has useful info about the criminal law and is searchable by country as well as http://www.hivjustice.net/site/countries/
MSM
http://ilga.org/what-we-do/state-sponsored-homophobia-report/ (2016)
Data contacts

Responses were received from PLUSS Foundation and EATG (www.eatg.org)

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