National policy
National policy/strategy or official recommendations on HIV testing?Yes
Who can administer HIV tests?
Restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?Yes
Which groups can legally do HIV testing?
  • Specialist clinic staff (doctor and/nurse) only
  • Any doctor/nurse (not necessarily in a specialist clinic)
Further commentsLegally, the test has to be carried out in a healthcare setting (not at a community center for instance).
Free HIV testing
HIV testing free to all who want it?Yes for all
Further commentsSome LGBT association have a relationship with municipality in Istanbul where you can take the test free.
Is free HIV testing available?Yes in certain places
Further comments
HIV testing restrictions
HIV testing access restricted for some groups/populations?No
Which groups are restricted
Further comments
Availability of testing in non-clinical settings
Is testing available in any of the following ways?
Postal HIV sampling legal?No
Home HIV testing legal?No
Community testing at NGOs legal?No
Community/outreach event testing legal?No
Rapid tests used by community based testing services/initiatives?Don't know
Anonymity/Confidentiality of HIV testing
Anonymous testing available?No
If yes, please give detailssome laboratory and NGO's campaign. National Identity Number must be given. But the result (if positive) is recorded under a basic code (initials of your name, father's name and last numbers of your national identity number). If you want anonymous testing, very few private laboratories do that; but this is illegal!
If not, why not, what sort of information is required and is there any promise of confidentiality?

Currently (2016) anonymous testing is illegal in Turkey.

Some institutions and NGO's campaign for changes in the legislation and regulations to allow for anonymous testing .

It is the case that  National Identity Number must be given. But the result (if positive) is recorded under a basic code (initials of your name, father's name and last numbers of your national identity number).

It is reported that some private laboratories do carry out anonymous testing illegally

Discrimination & equality
Legislation protecting the rights of people with HIV?No
Further commentsActivists drafted a national law for HIV/AIDS, including protection of PLHIV; but that's all. There is not any national legislation.
Other key populations
Needle exchange available for people who inject drugs?Yes
Further comments

There are conflicting reports. The respondents confirmed of a Needle exchange program but the website https://www.hri.global/global-state-of-harm-reduction states there is no program available.

Opiate substitution therapy available?Yes
Further commentsdrug treatment centers.

Availability of OST is also confirmed by information available on https://www.hri.global/global-state-of-harm-reduction
Are PWID (people who inject drugs) excluded from HIV treatment while actively using drugs?No
Further comments
Legal to sell sex?Yes
Further commentssee above

For more information: http://sexualrightsdatabase.org/map/21/Adult%20sex%20work/385/Turkey
Legal to buy sex?Yes
Further commentsYes and No. There are state owned brothels; it is legal to work there; but it is illegal to sell sex outside of state's brothels.
For more information: http://sexualrightsdatabase.org/map/21/Adult%20sex%20work/385/Turkey
Access to HIV Treatment
Free access to HIV treatment?Yes, for some
Further commentsFree access to all people registered in the health security system (majority). But not accessible to those who are out (or temporarily out) of the system and to migrants/refugees
Status and access to HIV treatment and care in your country
Access to HIV treatment restricted for certain populations with HIV?Yes
Which groups are restricted?
  • Migrants
  • some reject treatment for disclosure problems
If more than one of the above populations selected, please give more informationMigrants/refugees/asylum seekers all have different status in terms of their access to health. It is complicated. Some are entitled to free treatment, but this is generally "on paper"; many, especially African immigrant pregnant HIV positive women have severe problems of rejection from hospitals.
Country statusNon-EU / Non EFTA
Mobility in Europe
Do the following groups/populations have legal access to HIV treatment? (i.e provided on the same basis as citizens of the country)
Legal treatment access: Other EU migrant nationalsN/A
If yes but exceptions, please describe
Legal treatment access: general non-EU migrantsYes but there are exceptions
If yes but exceptions, please describe

Must be registered in the health system; complicated. 

Legal treatment access: Non-EU migrants with asylum/refugee statusYes but there are exceptions
If yes but exceptions, please describe

Complex situation - Syrians have access but not most others.

Legal treatment access: Non-EU migrants who are undocumentedNo
If yes but exceptions, please describe
Further commentsSome foreigners. Syrians have a special status; therefore they have access to healthcare in Turkey. However, for other refugees and migrants, there are restrictions.
About this data
Last minor revision12 July 2016
Last major revision19 December 2016
Published19 January 2017
Data sourcesAs well as responses from in-country individuals and organisations information and data was taken from the following sources:http://ecdc.europa.eu/en/healthtopics/aids/Pages/monitoring-dublin-declaration.aspx
Sex Work Laws
These included  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prostitution_by_country#Europe
The Global Network of Sex Work Projects www.nswp.org and country sources and http://sexualrightsdatabase.org/map/21/Adult%20sex%20work and http://spl.ids.ac.uk/sexworklaw
Drug use
Needle exchange information was taken from Harm Reduction International who have an interactive tool https://www.hri.global/global-state-of-harm-reduction
Criminal Law
http://criminalisation.gnpplus.net has useful info about the criminal law and is searchable by country as well as http://www.hivjustice.net/site/countries/
http://ilga.org/what-we-do/state-sponsored-homophobia-report/ (2016)
Data contacts

Responses received from Ege University (www.egehaum.com), Kaos GL (www.kaosgl.org), Positive Living Association (www.pozitifyasam.org) and Red Ribbon Istanbul (www.kirmizikurdele.org)

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