This database shows the most common legal and regulatory barriers to HIV testing, linkage to care and treatment access across Europe and in each individual European country, including how they affect particular key populations. 

Overview

Legal and regulatory barriers to best practice in HIV testing, care and treatment exist in all countries and in a variety of forms. They are a large part of what prevents us from reaching the UNAIDS 90/90/90 target in each country's HIV care continuum.

The map and grid enable comparison with other countries in the region as well as a quick check on individual countries. By clicking on specific country names in the grid, you can also access more detailed information on that country. Please use this information alongside the other advocacy tools provided by OptTEST and others to reduce these barriers and increase HIV testing, linkage to care and treatment access in your country.

If there are blank data fields or incorrect data on your country, please use the form to provide us with better data  including links to any documentary proofs. The database depends on your contributions and updates.

Albania

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes for all
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
No
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
No

Armenia

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes in certain places
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
No
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Austria

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes for all
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Azerbaijan

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes in certain places
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Belarus

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
No
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes for all
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Belgium

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes in certain places
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
Yes
Is home HIV testing legal?
Yes
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes for all
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Bulgaria

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes for all
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
Don't know
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Don't know

Croatia

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes in certain places
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Cyprus

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
No
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes for all
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
No
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Czech Republic

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes in certain places
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
Yes
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Denmark

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes for all
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Estonia

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes for all
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
Yes
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Finland

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes in certain places
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

France

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes for all
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
Yes
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Georgia

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
No
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes in certain places
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Germany

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
No
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes in certain places
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Greece

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
No
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes for all
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Hungary

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes for all
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Iceland

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes for all
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
No
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
No

Ireland

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
No
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes in certain places
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
Yes
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Israel

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes in certain places
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Italy

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes in certain places
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Kazakhstan

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes in certain places
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
Don't know
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
No
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
No

Kyrgyzstan

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes for all
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Latvia

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
No
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes in certain places
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Lithuania

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes in certain places
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Luxembourg

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes in certain places
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes in certain places
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Malta

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes for all
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
No
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
No

Moldova, Republic of

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes for all
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
Yes
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Montenegro

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes for all
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
No
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
No

Netherlands

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes in certain places
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
Yes
Is home HIV testing legal?
Yes
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Norway

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
No
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes for all
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Poland

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes for all
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
Yes
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
No

Portugal

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes for all
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Romania

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Don't know
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes in certain places
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
Yes
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Russian Federation

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes in certain places
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
Yes
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Serbia

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes for all
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Slovenia

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes in certain places
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Spain

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes in certain places
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Sweden

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
No
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes for all
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Switzerland

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes in certain places
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
Yes
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
No

Tajikistan

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes in certain places
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Turkey

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes for all
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
No
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
No

Turkmenistan

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Don't know
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Don't know
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
Don't know
Is home HIV testing legal?
Don't know
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Don't know
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Don't know

Ukraine

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes for all
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
Yes
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

United Kingdom

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
No
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes for all
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
Yes
Is home HIV testing legal?
Yes
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
Yes
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
Yes

Uzbekistan

Are there restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests?
Yes
Is HIV testing free to all who want it?
Yes for all
Is postal HIV sampling legal?
No
Is home HIV testing legal?
No
Is community testing at NGOs legal?
No
Is community/outreach event testing legal?
No
  National policy/strategy or official recommendations on HIV testing? Restrictions on who can legally administer HIV tests? Restrictions - Specialist clinic staff (doctor and/nurse) only Restrictions - Any doctor/nurse (not necessarily in a specialist clinic) Restrictions - NGO with clinical supervision Restrictions - NGO without clinical supervision HIV testing free to all who want it? Is free HIV testing available? HIV testing access restricted for some groups/populations? Restrictions - Men who have sex with men Restrictions - People who inject drugs Restrictions - Sex workers Restrictions - Migrants Restrictions - Transgender people Restrictions - Prisoners and incarcerated people Postal HIV sampling legal Home HIV testing legal Community testing at NGOs legal Community/outreach event testing legal Anonymous testing available Legislation protecting the rights of people with HIV Needle exchange available for people who inject drugs Opiate substitution therapy available Are PWID (people who inject drugs) excluded from HIV treatment while actively using drugs Legal to sell sex Legal to buy sex Free access to HIV treatment Access to HIV treatment restricted for certain populations with HIV Restricted access - Men who have sex with men Restricted access - People who inject drugs Restricted access - Sex workers Restricted access - Migrants Restricted access - Transgender people Restricted access - Prisoners and incarcerated people Country status Legal treatment access: Other EU migrant nationals Legal treatment access: general non-EU migrants Legal treatment access: Non-EU migrants with asylum/refugee status Legal treatment access: Non-EU migrants who are undocumented
Albania Yes Yes Yes Yes for all Yes in certain places No No No No No Yes Yes Don't know Don't know No No No Yes, for all No Non-EU / Non EFTA N/A No N/A No
Armenia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes in certain places Yes in certain places No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes, for some No Non-EU / Non EFTA N/A N/A N/A N/A
Austria No Yes Yes Yes Yes for all Yes in certain places No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes, for some No EU Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access No
Azerbaijan Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes in certain places Across whole country No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Don't know Yes, for some No Non-EU / Non EFTA N/A N/A N/A N/A
Belarus Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes for all Across whole country No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes, for all No Non-EU / Non EFTA N/A N/A N/A N/A
Belgium Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes in certain places Yes in certain places No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes, for some Yes Yes EU Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access Yes but there are exceptions
Bosnia and Herzegovina Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes for all Across whole country No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Don't know No No Yes, for all No Non-EU / Non EFTA N/A N/A N/A N/A
Bulgaria Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes for all Yes in certain places No No Don't know Yes Don't know Yes Yes Yes Don't know No No No Yes, for some No Yes EU Yes but there are exceptions Yes but there are exceptions Yes but there are exceptions No
Croatia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes in certain places Yes in certain places No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes, for some Yes Yes EU Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access No
Cyprus Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes for all Yes in certain places No No No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes, for some Yes Yes EU Yes but there are exceptions Yes but there are exceptions No No
Czech Republic Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes in certain places Yes in certain places No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes, for some Yes Yes EU Yes but there are exceptions Yes but there are exceptions Yes but there are exceptions No
Denmark Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes for all Across whole country No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes, for some Yes Yes EU Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access No
Estonia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes for all Across whole country No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes, for some Yes Yes EU Yes but there are exceptions Don't know Don't know Don't know
Finland Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes in certain places Across whole country No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes, for some Yes Yes EU Yes but there are exceptions Yes but there are exceptions Yes there is universal access No
France Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes for all Across whole country No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes, for all Yes Yes EU Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access Yes but there are exceptions
Georgia Yes No Yes Yes in certain places Yes in certain places No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes, for some No Non-EU / Non EFTA Don't know Yes but there are exceptions Yes but there are exceptions Yes but there are exceptions
Germany Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes in certain places Across whole country No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes, for some Yes Yes EU Yes but there are exceptions Yes there is universal access No No
Greece Yes No Yes Yes Yes for all Across whole country No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes, for all Yes Yes EU Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access
Hungary No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes for all Across whole country No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Don't know Don't know EU Yes there is universal access Yes but there are exceptions Don't know Don't know
Iceland No Yes Yes Yes for all Across whole country No No No No No No No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes, for all No EFTA Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access
Ireland Yes No Yes in certain places Yes in certain places No Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes, for all No EU Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access
Israel Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes in certain places Across whole country Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes, for some Yes Yes Non-EU / Non EFTA Don't know Don't know Don't know Don't know
Italy Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes in certain places Across whole country No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes, for some Yes EU Yes there is universal access Yes but there are exceptions Yes but there are exceptions Yes but there are exceptions
Kazakhstan Yes Yes Yes Yes in certain places Across whole country Yes Yes No Don't know No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes, for some No Yes Non-EU / Non EFTA No Yes but there are exceptions No No
Kyrgyzstan Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes for all Across whole country No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes, for all Yes Yes Yes Yes Non-EU / Non EFTA Don't know Don't know Don't know Don't know
Latvia Yes No Yes in certain places Across whole country No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes, for some Yes Yes EU Yes there is universal access No Yes but there are exceptions No
Lithuania No Yes Yes Yes in certain places Yes in certain places No No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes, for all No EU Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access
Luxembourg Yes Yes Yes Yes in certain places Yes in certain places No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes, for all No EU Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of No Yes Yes Yes Yes in certain places Across whole country No No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Don't know No Yes, for some No Non-EU / Non EFTA N/A N/A N/A N/A
Malta No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes for all Across whole country No No No No No Yes No Yes Yes No No No Yes, for all No EU Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access Don't know
Moldova, Republic of Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes for all Across whole country No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Don't know No Yes, for some No Non-EU / Non EFTA Yes but there are exceptions Don't know Don't know Don't know
Montenegro Yes Yes Yes Yes for all Across whole country No No No No No Yes No Yes Yes No No No Yes, for all No Non-EU / Non EFTA Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access
Netherlands Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes in certain places Across whole country No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes, for some No EU Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access
Norway Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes for all Across whole country No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Don't know Yes Yes, for all No EFTA Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access
Poland Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes for all Across whole country No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes, for some No EU Yes but there are exceptions Yes but there are exceptions Yes but there are exceptions Yes but there are exceptions
Portugal Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes for all Across whole country No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes, for some Yes Yes EU Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access Yes but there are exceptions
Romania Yes Don't know Yes Yes Yes Yes in certain places Yes in certain places Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes, for some Yes EU Yes but there are exceptions Yes but there are exceptions Yes but there are exceptions No
Russian Federation Don't know Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes in certain places Across whole country Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes, for some Yes Yes Non-EU / Non EFTA No No No No
Serbia No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes for all Yes in certain places No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No Yes, for some Yes Yes Non-EU / Non EFTA No No No No
Slovenia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes in certain places Across whole country No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes, for some No Yes EU Yes there is universal access Yes but there are exceptions Yes but there are exceptions No
Spain Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes in certain places Yes in certain places Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes, for some Yes Yes EU Yes there is universal access Yes but there are exceptions Yes but there are exceptions Yes but there are exceptions
Sweden Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes for all Across whole country No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes, for all No EU Yes but there are exceptions No Yes but there are exceptions Don't know
Switzerland Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes in certain places Yes in certain places No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes, for some Yes Yes EFTA Yes but there are exceptions Yes but there are exceptions Yes but there are exceptions No
Tajikistan Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes in certain places Yes in certain places No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes, for some Yes Yes Non-EU / Non EFTA No No No No
Turkey Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes for all Yes in certain places No No No No No No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes, for some Yes Yes Non-EU / Non EFTA Yes but there are exceptions Yes but there are exceptions Yes but there are exceptions N/A
Turkmenistan Don't know Don't know Don't know Don't know Don't know Don't know Don't know Don't know Don't know Don't know Don't know Don't know Don't know Don't know Don't know Don't know Don't know Don't know Non-EU / Non EFTA Don't know Don't know Don't know Don't know
Ukraine Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes for all Across whole country Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes, for some Yes Yes Non-EU / Non EFTA No No No No
United Kingdom Yes No Yes for all Across whole country No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes, for all No EU Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access Yes there is universal access
Uzbekistan Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes for all Across whole country Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes, for all Don't know Yes Non-EU / Non EFTA Don't know Don't know Don't know Don't know

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